Stock Trading: For Beginners and Experienced Traders

stock trading

Acknowledging stock trading terms not just leverages the perspective and knowledge of traders but help them understand the domain. They help fetch the vital details of the market and weasel out of the supposed peril looking in the face. Here are some of the masterful terminologies related to the stock market used routinely by brokers and professional traders.

Distribution or Accumulation – Stock Trading Terms

As per this, a trader makes a cumulative assessment and compares different prices of a specific stock while buying or selling. Here, low, closing, and high prices compare with each other, followed by the multiplication of the volume. In short, it is an indicator to know the outcome of a stock (sold or bought) by looking at the volumes and prices. It focuses on finding out the divergence for knowing about the strength of a trend. Distribution/Accumulation exhibit the relevance of demand and supply factors in the variation of values.

12b-1 Fees

It gets defined as a yearly distribution and marketing fee spent on mutual funds. It also includes the service fee, which is mostly limited to 1% yearly. Here the cost for marketing and distribution is limited to 0.75% annually whereas the rest 0.25% goes into the account of the service fee.

52 Week High

It means if a stock touches the pinnacle in the past one year or the highest ever price in 52 weeks. It assists in predicting the prices for the coming days and assessing the potential of a share. The technical indicator also showcases the resistance level. Some investors use it to figure out and analyze the future price movement.

52-Week Low

The indicator is somewhat similar to the 52 weeks high, but here it indicates the lowest ever price of a stock in the exchange while trading to an investor. It establishes a benchmark to ponder upon the price value of a stock in the coming days. Based on such indicators, a trader can decide to go forward. Also, such data helps in anticipating what comes next.

Analyst Ratings

These ratings are a type of experts’ views of the stock markets, who preview, analyse and predict whether a share needs to sell, hold, buy or should not be considered at all by an investor. Several rating agencies are involved in it, which is based on the performance rate companies listed on a stock exchange. They project a stock on a current outcome, past operations, and fundamental works on the ground. Some professional traders consider these ratings as the gospel truth and follow them religiously while attempting to make an investment. So, the analysis of experts forms a viewpoint of many traders.

Asset Allocation

It means allocating a certain priority to each financial market in the portfolio by balancing out the assets based on the information a trader accumulates and profits. The main aim is to draw maximum benefits and negate any possible risk.

Analyst Rating Trading

Sometimes experts or analysts suggest clear-cut actions against a stock, whether it would outperform or underperform. That is beyond the suggestion or advice of buying, selling or holding. Such projections provide more clarity to investors and give them the confidence to shed their inhibitions while trading in given stocks.

After-Hours Trading

As it clearly states, it is a type of trading which takes place after the normal trading closes the day. It happens via digital equipment and through an electronic market. The time for it ranges somewhere between 4:05 PM to 8 PM. It has become a usual practice ever since the internet revolutionized the entire economy and transactions. Now, with the use of mobile apps and smartphones, many banks, brokerage services, and other organizations have started indulging and offering the after-hours trading. Also, there’s a possibility of pre-market trading, which is changing the course of the stock and other financial markets worldwide. Besides, going a step further, some brokerage firms are providing 24/7 trading. However, due to fewer bidding and volumes due to the timing, executing trades sometimes ted bit difficult.


In simple words, it is the simultaneous selling and buying of securities or stocks or different financial instruments and stocks. Also, when the same commodity or a security trade in different markets, then the investors has a chance to earn profit by temporarily leveraging the price difference in every listing. Precisely, such tactics are becoming popular among traders when they transact for cryptocurrencies. On various platforms, they buy the same asset as the price varies. It happens as the currencies have the potential to be traded on sundry markets. Also, smart traders have the tendency to buy an asset at a cheaper rate in one market and subsequently sell that at a higher range on the other.

Average Daily Trade Volume

It is chiefly known as ADTV. Its calculation happens within a stipulated period of twenty to thirty days. It gets yielded when the overall number of trades for a given security is divided by the total number of days. The exercise will offer the per-day trade volume. Also, it represents the average number of assets traded in a day.

Bear Market

It signifies the financial market, which is on a declining spree from quite a few months and witnesses a considerable slump over a few months. The decline can be 20 percent or more. It is a pessimistic approach that stems from negativity, rumor-mongering, fear of losing money, investment in the market and other geopolitical factors. Principally, it is driven by sentiments and widespread uncertainty of the market. It has two types: Cyclical and Secular. While the former would last from a few weeks to months, the latter can stretch to decades.

Bull Market

It is the phase of a stock market that can be defined as a purple patch, where the market pretends to run like a bull, exuding non-stop energy and profiting investors. The base for it is marked as the bear market. Here, the feeling of despondency converts into optimism and the market is expected to rise from the abyss. It has a tendency to continue for months to years. When the market sees a jump of 20 percent or more than that period is termed as a bull market. The characteristics for it is positive thoughts and seeing things with the prism of optimism.

Beige Book

The book offers anecdotal information about the economic state, condition, and situation in a district by collecting data from directors of the bank and its branches. The Federal Reserve Bank accumulates the knowledge and publishes it in the public domain eight times a year. It predominantly reflects the US economy. The Beige Book summarizes all the details.

Backdoor Roth IRA

The technique helps in strategizing to keep the income of high salary earners for the retirement safe from taxes in a Roth IRA. Hence, it is an unofficial retirement account that is complicated. Though it is IRS sanctioned where high-income earners can fund a Roth even if it is more than the standard limit. Precisely, it’s referred to as a backdoor entry.

Back-End Load

It is a sales commission or charges paid by investors when they happen to sell their shares in a mutual fund. Also, it is the fee charged when the investor redeems the mutual funds. There are chances it may decline gradually with the lapse of time, orderly within five to ten years. It is denoted as the value percentage of the overall funds’ shares.

Bar Chart

It is a kind of evaluation tool that gives the data about the prices for an array of assets through visual representations. It entails the details about how a security or a stock performed over a consolidated period. A bar chart showcases categorical data through different graphs in vertical, rectangular, and other forms. The size and shape vary in terms of representational purposes.

Balance Sheet

It identifies with the cumulative account of a company’s share, debts, profits, losses, revenue, net worth, liabilities, assets and capital related to shareholders. It holds a value equivalent to invaluable for experts, traders and investors as it gives an in-depth insight of a company listed on a stock exchange. In short, it’s a financial statement computing the gross capital of a conglomerate.


The measurement indicator chalks out the volatility of a stock or security compared to random parameters for standard. It measures the risk flaring up from the exposure of the movement attached to general markets. It is opposed to idiosyncratic factors.

Balanced Fund

It is one of a kind mutual fund amalgamating components of bonds, commodities and stocks in a single portfolio. Their holdings remain balanced between debt and equity while fulfilling the purpose between income and growth. Its primary objective is to hike the investment value. It is a long-term scheme that goes beyond 5 years. Some amount is paid out of it as income. It has a diverse range of shares from large to mid-cap companies.


It is a tool facilitating the transaction, sale, and purchase of stocks and securities in an orderly manner. Bid-ask-spread is the distinction between the price quoted for immediately buying and selling for options, stocks, forex, futures or futures contracts. It is the amount that exceeds the ask price than the bid price for any instrument or asset. It also determines the difference in price between the highest amount a buyer is paying, and the lowest the seller is accepting willingly.


These are the types of stocks that are fundamentally strong and cover the history of excellent performance and overpower all the uncertainties posed by the market. They have a reputation as a diamond that gets better with time and provides dividends to the shareholders timely. These companies are financially robust, with an imperial past of growth, dependable revenue, and a market cap touching billions of dollars. Such conglomerates are on top of their game and field. Tesla, Amazon, Apple are some of the illustrations. They are consistent in offering profits to their buyers.

Bollinger Bands

These are a kind of statistical chart displaying the volatility, prices, and valuation among other factors over a period for an asset or an instrument. It helps analyze the activity of securities and their bandwidth representing the space between lows-highs, and stability. The formula for characterization was rendered by John Bollinger.

Black Swan

It defines the most unpredictable and rare events that result in calamitous consequences in the financial market. It is a situation that comes out of syllabus and beyond anyone’s imagination. Though it has a characteristic of rarity. They can inflict catastrophic damage to any economy.


It is typically an IOU between a borrower and a lender including the information of loan and its payments ascribed on it. Organisations like an established firm or a company and governments can also offer loans. Fixed-income bonds represent them. It provides a stable return to the owner. Bonds are mostly issued by big companies and government organizations to fund projects related to construction, municipality, financial operations and fulfilling other liabilities. There is an option of redeeming them after a point of time. Government bonds are secure as they are most unlikely to default on their promises.


It generally means that the companies that issued the shares are repurchasing them for some unforeseen or other purposes like increasing the prices of their remaining stocks through controlling them. Buyback is also known as the share repurchase program or stock buyback. It is a demonstration that a company has enough cash to counter emergencies as and when they arrive.

Buy Rating

The rating arrives from professional analysts who anticipate and predict the upward movement of a particular stock or equity in the forthcoming days in a financial year. It also suggests which stock or security is worth purchasing.

Buy-Side Analysts

Such types of analysts works for the buy-side management firms, including trusts, pension funds, mutual funds, and hedge funds. They are employed to research equities.


This indicator tells about the closing and opening prices of a stock for a given point of time. It is a type of chart utilized for technical analysis of a security. Also, it can be used to know the chart patterns by traders.

Call Option

In this, investors purchase the rights to buy a particular amount of shares at an agreed rate without adhering to any type of boundation on or before a given date. These are financial contracts that enable an option buyer without any obligation to buy bonds, commodities, stocks as well as other financial assets and instruments.

Capital Gains

It is a positive amount of difference in the value of an during the current selling price and the price at which it was bought by the investor. It is the profit yielded by a trader after selling stocks, real estate property, bonds, and other assets. Here, the sale price always eclipses the purchasing one.

Call Option Volume

When a stock or security buys and sells, the number of times the process takes place becomes its volume. It is the transaction that culminates into the call option volume. The term can indicate instruments and assets like currencies, commodities, stocks, etc.

Capital Gains Distributions

It is the settlement of the payment to all shareholders of a mutual fund company. The process starts when interest and dividends calculate after stocks or securities are liquidated.

Cash Flow

It is the net amount of cash equivalent or cash that transfer out or into a business to push the deliverables of a company. The net income calculates by drawing out the expenses from the revenue. Here, the cash flow also determines the value of a company for its shareholders. Investors mark it as a good omen for financial success.

Cash Asset Ratio

It is one measurement tool that helps traders in comparing high liquid assets with short-term liabilities. It is also calculated by adding cash as well as marketable securities divided by the liabilities of a company.

CD Ladder

It is a type of investing strategy which bifurcates a fixed amount of funds among multiple certificates of deposits or CDs despite their different purchasing dates. It declines the investment risk, but also the rate of interest for the investor.

Channel Trading

It usually involves technical indicators for determining the price movement patterns that inform trading channels along with creating them.

Catch-Up Contributions

These are the deposits made by employers besides the allowed limits of retirement plans. Retirement savings gives leeway for employees who have crossed the age of 50 years to save an additional fund.

CBOE Russell 2000® Volatility Index

The index finds out and indicates the volatility of the stock market related to the options prices listed on the Russell 2000 Index. It measures market expectations and depends on near-term volatility.

Circuit Breakers

These are kept by the Securities & Exchange Commission (SEC) to avoid any type of panic selling related to the US stock markets as well as exchanges. They are regulatory measures that amount to temporarily halt in trading. It applies to individual securities as well as market indices.

Closed-End Mutual Funds

These are also special types of mutual funds which have their shares or stocks trading open in the market like EFTs.

Convertible Shares

Such stocks can turn or convert into a particular number of shares by the holder as post the predetermined date. They are also termed as preferred shares. Some convertible shares come loaded with an option for which a request can place to convert them. The value of such stocks depends directly on the performance of common stocks.

Wise Words

Learn technical Stock Trading terms also offers a chance for a trader to perform some self-explanatory chance. On the whole, the knowledge empowers investors to make decisions and even question the broker for any move. Sometimes, in the garb of less information, the beginners find it difficult to operate well in the market. Hence, these terms work as a guide to help traders cross through these heightened waters.